Understanding Thyroid Cancer And Survival Rate
Thyroid cancer occurs within thyroid cells found in the thyroid, which produces hormones that regulate various body functions, including heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and weight. An individual with thyroid cancer might not show symptoms immediately, but persistent pain and swelling often result as the tumor grows. Besides, some types of thyroid cancer grow slowly while others can be aggressive, although most of them are treatable.
Thyroid cancer occurs about 1% of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States alone annually, with over 2,200 deaths reported. In addition, there has been an upsurge in thyroid cancer rates over the years which is primarily associated with the advancement of technology allowing for the detection of small cancerous cells in the thyroid that could not be found in the past.
Diagnosis Of Thyroid Cancer
Diagnosis of thyroid cancer involves various tests and procedures to identify the type of thyroid cancer, its location, and an ideal treatment technique. If you suspect you have thyroid cancer or have signs of the illness, your doctor that specializes in clinical oncology may suggest one or a combination of the following diagnostic tests and procedures.
- Physical exam: It involves examining the neck for any physical changes in the thyroid, mainly thyroid nodules.
- Blood tests: The doctor who specializes in clinical oncology can use blood tests to determine whether the thyroid gland functions properly.
- Ultrasound imaging: This involves high-frequency sound waves that generate a picture of the body. It includes creating an image of the thyroid gland using an ultrasound transducer that shows the appearance of the gland and if the thyroid nodule is noncancerous or cancerous.
- Biopsy: A doctor uses a fine-needle aspiration biopsy to remove a tissue sample from the thyroid nodule. The tissue is analyzed to determine if the gland comprises cancer cells.
Once the doctor diagnoses the patient to establish if the tumor is cancerous, the type and identifies potentially effective cancer treatment options, they can estimate the prognosis.
Linear Logistic Regression Analysis For The Risk Of Clinicopathological Factors Between Tcvptc And Classic Ptc With Tcf
Table 4 shows the results of linear logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors associated with TCVPTC. Tumor size > 2 cm , bilaterality , and lateral LN metastasis were significantly associated with TCVPTC. Moreover, ETE showed a significant association with TCVPTC compared with classic PTC with TCF .
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How Is Papillary Thyroid Cancer Staged
Papillary thyroid cancer staging is based on the results of the physical examination, biopsy, imaging tests and the pathologic findings of surgery itself .
Papillary thyroid cancer has a staging system that is not like other cancers. This staging system for papillary thyroid cancer takes into account the age of the patient. The break point of age in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for papillary thyroid cancer is 55 years of age. Therefore, if you are less than 55 years of age, the most advanced papillary thyroid cancer is stage II disease.
In papillary thyroid cancer staging, and for that matter all cancer staging, the earlier the stage of disease is the more favorable and curable the cancer. Therefore, the lower/smaller the number, the better the chance for cure and long term survival. :1167-214.)
How Is Papillary Thyroid Cancer Treated
Treatments for papillary thyroid cancer depend on the tumor size and whether the cancer has spread .
Surgery is the most common treatment for PTC. Depending on the tumors size and location, your surgeon may remove part of your thyroid gland or all of your gland . If you have cancer present in the lymph nodes of your neck, your surgeon may remove the affected lymph nodes at the time of the initial thyroid surgery or as a second procedure.
If you have a total thyroidectomy, youll need to take thyroid hormone replacement medication for the rest of your life.
Additional treatments for PTC include:
- Radioiodine therapy: Thyroid cells and papillary thyroid cancer cells absorb iodine, a mineral found in some food. Because of this, healthcare providers sometimes use a radioactive form of iodine to destroy all remaining normal thyroid tissue and potentially destroy residual cancerous thyroid tissue after a thyroidectomy.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine to deliver strong beams of energy directly to the tumor site. Internal radiation therapy involves placing radioactive seeds in or around the tumor.
- Chemotherapy: Intravenous or oral chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells and stop cancer growth. Very few people diagnosed with thyroid cancer will ever need chemotherapy.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects And Complications Of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Treatment
Permanent hypothyroidism is an expected side effect of thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy. Because of this, youll need to take replacement thyroid hormone medication for the rest of your life if you undergo either or both of these treatments.
Possible complications of thyroid surgery include:
- Accidental removal of or damage to your parathyroid glands, which help regulate your blood calcium levels.
- Damage to your recurrent laryngeal nerve, which runs behind your thyroid gland, resulting in hoarseness and a weak voice.
Potential side effects of radioactive iodine therapy include:
Working On A Manuscript
|There are a small group of tumors among papillary thyroid cancers with a more aggressive behavior, higher rates of recurrence, and metastasis.|
|Achieving a correct histological diagnosis of these variants is essential for the prognosis of patients.|
|Knowing the clinical characteristics of these tumors can help us suspect their presence, given the different clinical signs of aggressiveness they show.|
|After the diagnosis it is important to carry out a more aggressive treatment than in the classic variants.|
|Each patient must be evaluated individually in order to provide the appropriate surgical treatment as well as a complementary treatment trying to improve their prognosis.|
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Can You Treat Cancer And Live A Normal Life
Most thyroid cancers are treatable, especially when cancerous cells remain within the thyroid gland and has not metastasized to nearby lymph nodes or organs. Your doctor may suggest other therapy options if cancer has spread to other body parts. However, if your thyroid cancer cannot be cured, the treatment may involve removing or destroying cancerous cells and preventing them from growing, spreading, or returning.
Sometimes, thyroid cancer treatment can be administered to relieve associated symptoms of the illness, such as pain and swallowing and breathing issues. Your doctor can diagnose your condition to determine if it is curable or recommend further examination to determine your prognosis or survival rate.
Comparison Of The Clinicopathological Features And Oncologic Outcomes Of The Classic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Tall Cell Features And Tall Cell Variant
Kwangsoon Kim1^, Chan Kwon Jung2^, Dong-Jun Lim3^, Ja Seong Bae1^, Jeong Soo Kim1^
1 Department of Surgery, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea , Department of Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea , Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea , , Korea
Contributions: Conception and design: JS Bae Administrative support: CK Jung, DJ Lim, JS Kim Provision of study materials or patients: K Kim, JS Bae, JS Kim Collection and assembly of data: K Kim, CK Jung, JS Bae Data analysis and interpretation: K Kim, JS Bae Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.
^ORCID: Kwangsoon Kim, 0000-0001-6403-6035 Chan Kwon Jung, 0000-0001-6843-3708 Dong-Jun Lim, 0000-0003-0995-6482 Ja Seong Bae, 0000-0002-6271-2105 Jeong Soo Kim, 0000-0002-9982-7838.
Background: The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common aggressive variant of PTC. Classic PTC with tall cell features is defined as PTC with noticeable tall cells but the percentage of these cells is lower than that required for the diagnosis of TCVPTC. We aimed to investigate the potential differences between TCVPTC and classic PTC with TCF with respect to clinicopathological characteristics and oncologic outcomes.
Keywords: Tall cell features tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma disease-free survival
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Does Thyroid Cancer Shorten Your Life
Thyroid cancer patients who undergo early diagnosis and treatment can live disease-free without reoccurrence of cancerous cells throughout their lives. However, if the condition returns over time following thyroid cancer treatment, life expectancy varies reducing the average to 60%. In some cases, life expectancy can be extended if you keep follow-up care of your doctor. Since papillary thyroid cancer confined to the gland is unlikely to cause death, patients have a higher survival rate than other thyroid cancer forms.
What Are The Symptoms Of Papillary Thyroid Cancer
The main sign of papillary thyroid cancer is a painless lump or nodule on your thyroid gland. PTC usually doesnt cause any other symptoms.
In rare cases, you may experience pain in your neck, jaw or ear from PTC. If the nodule is large enough to compress your windpipe or esophagus, it may cause difficulty with breathing or swallowing.
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How Is Papillary Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed
Papillary thyroid cancer usually presents as a lump or nodule on your thyroid gland. You may notice it, or your healthcare provider may discover it during a routine neck examination. Sometimes, the nodule is discovered incidentally by imaging tests you get for other medical reasons.
Your healthcare provider will likely order the following tests to help diagnose PTC:
- Imaging tests: Your provider may order imaging tests to identify the nodule on your thyroid. These tests might include thyroid ultrasound, CT scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging .
- Fine needle aspiration : Your provider will likely want to take a small tissue sample, called a biopsy, from the nodule on your thyroid using a very thin needle. A pathologist will look at the tissue under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells and, if so, what type of thyroid cancer it is.
Your healthcare provider may also recommend genetic counseling to see if you have a genetic condition that may have caused PTC and may cause other types of tumors.
Postoperative Management And Follow
Postoperative care and follow-up was conducted according to the ATA management guidelines . Patients were administered suppressive doses of levothyroxine for suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone immediately after operation and were regularly followed-up. All patients underwent physical examination, thyroid function tests, serum Tg concentration, anti-Tg antibody, and neck US every 36 months for the first year, and annually thereafter. Postoperative radioactive iodine ablation was performed at 68 weeks after surgery, and whole-body scans were performed at 57 days after RAI ablation in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy . Patients who showed signs of recurrence on routine follow-up evaluation were assessed via additional diagnostic imaging, including CT scan, positron emission tomography/CT scan, and/or radioactive iodine whole-body scan, to determine the location and extent of suspected recurrence. In cases of suspected recurrence, diagnosis was confirmed via histologic examination using FNA or a surgical biopsy specimen.
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What Is A 5
A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of thyroid cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of thyroid cancer is 90%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as people who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
Variants Of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Return to: Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the thyroid, contributing to over 70% of thyroid cancers.1 These tumors are diagnosed using characteristic nuclear morphology however, within the classification of “papillary thyroid carcinoma,” there exist several distinct architectural and cytologic subtypes. About 50% of PTC are of the classical subtype, while the other 50% are made up of less common histologic variants.10 Conventional, or classical, papillary thyroid carcinoma , seen below, is characterized by papillary architecture with fibrovascular cores and psammoma bodies and tumor cells containing enlarged, overlapping nuclei with nuclear clearing and nuclear grooves and nuclear membrane irregularities . While papillary thyroid carcinoma tends to have an excellent prognosis, certain histologic variants have been shown to have more aggressive clinical courses. As such, determining the microscopic subtype of a papillary thyroid cancer is an important step in determining prognosis. Described below are the presentation, pathologic features, and prognostic indications of several of the more common variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma1-4.
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma
Tall Cell Variant
Columnar Cell Variant
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Thyroid Cancer Survival Rates By Type And Stage
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They can’t tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Your doctor is familiar with yoursituation ask how these numbers may apply to you.
Prognostic Outcomes Of Tall Cell Variant Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Meta
Objective. To evaluate the prognosis of tall cell variant compared to usual variant papillary thyroid cancer by comparing disease-related mortality and recurrence data from published studies. Methods. Ovid MEDLINE keyword search using tall cell variant papillary thyroid cancer was used to identify studies published in English that calculated disease-related mortality and recurrence rates for both TCV and UV. Results. A total of 131 cases of tall cell variant papillary thyroid cancer were reviewed. The combined odds ratio of recurrence for TCV compared to UV is 4.50 with a 95% confidence interval from 2.90 to 6.99. For disease-related mortality, the combined odds ratio for TCV was compared to UV of 14.28 with a 95% confidence interval from 8.01 to 25.46. . Currently published data suggests that TCV is a negative prognostic indicator in papillary thyroid cancer and requires aggressive therapy. This meta-analysis provides the largest prognostic data series on TCV in the literature and clearly identifies the need for accurate pathological identification of TCV and its further study as an independent prognostic factor.
W. A. Hawk and J. B. Hazard, The many appearances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, Cleveland Clinic Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 207216, 1976.
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Spectrum Of Risk Exists For Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
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Aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma variants appeared associated with a wide range of survival outcomes, suggesting greater emphasis should be placed on tailored treatment approaches for patients with histologically and prognostically distinct subtypes, according to study results published in JAMA Oncology.
We have empirically noted an increase in incidence of more exotic papillary thyroid carcinoma subtypes over time however, the literature on these rare variants is not as robust as we would like,Allen S. Ho, MD, director of the head and neck cancer program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, told Healio. For instance, some papers find diffuse sclerosing variant to be aggressive, others find it to be indolent. We furthermore saw that modern guidelines consolidate all papillary thyroid carcinoma subtypes as intermediate risk, when we were clearly seeing that they have different phenotypes. A spectrum of risk exists for thyroid cancers.
Investigators examined incidence, clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of 5,447 aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma identified from hospital-based and population-based U.S. cancer registries. These included 415 diffuse sclerosing variant, 3,339 tall cell variant, 362 insular variant and 1,331 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cases.
Median follow-up was 51.2 months .
Common Symptoms Of Thyroid Cancer
Although it remains unclear what causes thyroid cancer, the condition can result from mutations of cells within the thyroid gland. These genetic changes stimulate the rapid growth of cells, leading to the accumulation of abnormal cells that form a tumor. A person with a cancerous thyroid tumor can have multiple symptoms, including:
- Difficulty swallowing
- Changes of voice, including increasing hoarseness
- A lump in the neck
- Pain in the throat and neck
- Swollen lymph node in your neck
So, be sure to check what happens when cancer spreads to the lymph nodes and when other symptoms start to show. While anyone diagnosed with thyroid cancer can live a normal life, age can affect the survival rate. For example, a patient below 45 years has an excellent prognosis than an individual over 60. Therefore, age plays a critical role in determining the survival rate of patients with thyroid cancer, where the younger population has a higher survival rate than the elderly or people over 60 years.
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Univariate And Multivariate Analyses Of The Risk Factors For Recurrence
Table 3 presents the results of univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses for identifying the risk factors associated with DFS. In univariate analysis, tumor size > 2 cm , lymphatic invasion , vascular invasion , and positive lymph nodes showed a significant association with recurrence. Among these, tumor size > 2 cm and lymphatic invasion were identified as significant risk factors for DFS in multivariate analysis. There was no significant difference between the TCVPTC and classic PTC with TCF groups with respect to DFS .