Friday, March 1, 2024

Why Do Thyroid Nodules Form

How Are Goiters And Thyroid Nodules Diagnosed

Thyroid Nodules: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments | Dr. Kannan

Goiters and thyroid nodules are often found by families and doctors by looking at and touching the neck. Lab tests and a thyroid ultrasound can give doctors a good idea of what’s going on. If a thyroid nodule is found, extra testing is sometimes needed.

A fine-needle biopsy might be done to see whether a nodule is cancerous. During the biopsy, the doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin into the thyroid nodule . Through the needle, the doctor takes a sample of tissue or some fluid from a cyst. The tissue or fluid is then sent to a lab. In some cases, the nodule might have to be surgically removed for more a detailed examination.

Some thyroid nodules make too much hormone and so another test, a thyroid scan, might be done. For this test, a person swallows a pill containing a small amount of radioactive iodine or another radioactive substance. The thyroid absorbs the radioactive substance. Then a special camera measures where the radioactive substance is taken up by the thyroid gland. This gives the doctor a better picture of the location, size, and type of thyroid nodule.

Nodules With Benign Cytology

The risk of malignancy in nodules reported as benign is 03 % . Patients with benign nodules are usually managed conservatively without surgery immediate further diagnostic studies are not required . Though there is a risk of false negative results associated with cytology reporting, initial benign FNA has negligible mortality risk in long term follow up .

The frequency and duration of follow up of the benign nodules have been variable in clinical practice. In the nodules that have suddenly enlarged, hemorrhage and cystic degeneration is the most common cause malignancy is rare even in nodules that have grown . There is no clear evidence to suggest that nodules with larger size with benign cytology should be managed differently than smaller nodules . The follow up of the benign cytological diagnosis should be decided on the sonographic characteristic of the nodule rather than growth .

Per the 2015 ATA guidelines, nodules with high suspicious US pattern should have repeat US and FNA within 12 months while those with low to intermediate suspicious US pattern should have repeat US in 1224 months. The decision to repeat FNA or observe with repeat US is based on > 20 % growth in at least 2 nodule dimensions or > 50 % increase in nodule volume or the appearance of new suspicious US pattern. Nodules with very low suspicious patterns should have US repeated at 24 months or more. Continued surveillance for a nodule with repeat second benign cytology is not needed .

How Is A Thyroid Nodule Evaluated And Diagnosed

Once the nodule is discovered, your doctor will try to determine whether the rest of your thyroid is healthy or whether the entire thyroid gland has been affected by a more general condition such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Your physician will feel the thyroid to see whether the entire gland is enlarged and whether a single or multiple nodules are present. The initial laboratory tests may include measurement of thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in your blood to determine whether your thyroid is functioning normally.

Since its usually not possible to determine whether a thyroid nodule is cancerous by physical examination and blood tests alone, the evaluation of the thyroid nodules often includes specialized tests such as thyroid ultrasonography and fine needle biopsy.

The report of a thyroid fine needle biopsy will usually indicate one of the following findings:

  • The nodule is benign .
    • This result is obtained in up to 80% of biopsies. The risk of overlooking a cancer when the biopsy is benign is generally less than 3 in 100 tests or 3%. This is even lower when the biopsy is reviewed by an experienced pathologist at a major medical center. Generally, benign thyroid nodules do not need to be removed unless they are causing symptoms like choking or difficulty swallowing. Follow up ultrasound exams are important. Occasionally, another biopsy may be required in the future, especially if the nodule grows over time.


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    Thyroid Nodules: When To Worry

    Suppose you go to your doctor for a check-up, and, as shes feeling your neck, she notices a bump. Then, suppose she tells you theres a nodule on your thyroid. Is it time to panic?

    No, say experts at Johns Hopkins Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. Thyroid nodules even the occasional cancerous ones are treatable.

    Heres what you need to know about thyroid nodules and how concerned you should be if you develop one.

    Types And Causes Of Thyroid Nodules

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    Thyroid nodules result from the abnormal growth of cells. These thyroid growths may be:

    • A single nodule, or multiple small nodules grouped together
    • Filled with fluid or colloid
    • Solid or hard these nodules are more likely to be cancerous
    • Producing thyroid hormones

    It’s unknown what causes most thyroid nodules, according to the American Thyroid Association.

    Known causes include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, a condition in which the immune system attacks thyroid tissue, as well as iodine deficiency, which is uncommon in the United States.

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    Thyroid Nodule: Evaluation And Tests

    The following are a list of tests that are required in the evaluation of a patient with a thyroid nodule.

    • Complete Medical History and Physical Examination
    • Thyroglobulin Antibody
  • Ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration
  • Medical history and physical examination is required for all patients with a thyroid nodule

    If there is a suspicion that you may have a thyroid nodule, your health care professional will want to know your complete medical history. You will be asked questions about your possible risk factors, symptoms, and any other health problems or concerns. If someone in your family has had a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or other endocrine cancer, these are important factors.

    Your doctor will examine you to get more information about possible signs of thyroid cancer and other health problems. During the exam, the doctor will pay special attention to the size and firmness of your thyroid and any enlarged lymph nodes in your neck. Examination of your voice box is part of the physical examination obtained by the surgeon for any thyroid lump. A small lighted microscope is used to look at the voice box to determine how the vocal cords of the voice box are functioning. Even though a patient does not report change in their voice does not insure that the vocal cords are working normally. A vocal cord that is paralyzed greatly increases the concern that a thyroid nodule may be a cancer.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Thyroid Nodules

    Thyroid nodules do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, if the nodules become large, you may experience symptoms such as:

    • Goiter, an enlarged thyroid gland
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • Pain at the base of your neck
    • Difficulty breathing

    In some cases, your thyroid nodules may produce excess thyroid hormones and can cause hyperthyroidism symptoms such as:

    If you have an autoimmune thyroid condition, you may experience symptoms of hypothyroidism, which include:

    • Sensitivity to cold

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    Risk Factors For Thyroid Nodules

    Thyroid nodules are actually quite common. By the age of 60, half of all people have them. Theyâre often very small. You might only learn you have a thyroid nodule when your doctor feels for one during an examination or if you have an ultrasound of your thyroid.

    Still, several things can increase your chances of developing a thyroid nodule. They include:

    • Living in a part of the world where the diet doesnât include iodine

    • Having a family history of thyroid nodules

    • Having a history of radiation exposure to head or neck

    How Are Thyroid Nodules Evaluated

    Approach to a Thyroid Nodule – causes, investigation and treatment

    At the UCLA Endocrine Center in Los Angeles, multiple layers of evaluation are designed to help you avoid invasive tests and surgery whenever possible. Consultation, ultrasound, and FNA can all be performed in a single visit.

    Initial evaluation of a newly discovered thyroid nodule begins with:

    • Assessment by an endocrinologist or endocrine surgeon
    • Thyroid function tests
    • Neck ultrasound performed by your doctor

    An ultrasound is a highly accurate tool to visualize your nodule. There is no associated radiation with ultrasounds and it is non-invasive. Ultrasounds are cost-effective as most patients really don’t need any other imaging because the ultrasounds are the best way to look at the thyroid, all present nodules, and the lymph nodes in the neck.

    Not all thyroid nodules need a biopsy. Many thyroid nodules we see in our office, we choose not to biopsy because the ultrasound appearance is so reassuring. That is one way to avoid over treatment. For example, nodules that appear completely black on the inside are purely cystic, or filled with fluid. The chance of cancer for a cystic nodule is essentially zero and cystic nodules do not require biopsy. There are guidelines from the American Thyroid Association that will help your doctor determine which nodules to biopsy based on their size and how suspicious they look on the ultrasound.

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    What Is The Thyroid

    The thyroid is one of the glands that belongs to the endocrine system. The butterfly-shaped gland is responsible for releasing hormones into the bloodstream to control and regulate many of the bodys daily functions. It sits just below the larynx and is made up of right and left lobes that form a bridge. Without the thyroid, general regulations like digestion, sex drive and heart function would cease.

    Diagnosing A Thyroid Nodule

    There are a number of tests that can help your doctor diagnose a thyroid nodule.

    These same diagnostic tools will help rule out cancer as well as determine if your thyroid is functioning properly, which are both vital pieces of information.

    Ways we diagnose a thyroid nodule include:

    • A physical examination Your doctor may be able to feel the nodule simply by placing hands on your neck while you swallow a few times.
    • Ultrasound A thyroid ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to pass through the skin and create an image of the nodule. Ultrasounds can distinguish between fluid-filled cysts and solid nodules as well as identify which ones are more likely to be cancerous.
    • Thyroid scan During this test, youll receive an injection of radioactive iodine and then a special camera will take pictures of your neck area. This test can help rule out cancer.
    • Biopsy Neither a scan nor an ultrasound can diagnose cancer, so if there is concern that the nodule is malignant, you might need a biopsy. During this procedure, your doctor will insert a needle into the lump and remove a sample of cells to be examined.

    When evaluating thyroid disorders, it is customary to understand the function of the thyroid. Blood tests can determine if the thyroid is producing a normal amount , too little , or too much thyroid hormone.

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    What Increases Your Risk For Thyroid Nodules

    You are more likely to develop a thyroid nodule if:

    • Thyroid nodules are more common in older people.
  • You are female.
  • Women are more likely than men to develop thyroid nodules.
  • You have been exposed to radiation.
  • Exposure to environmental radiation or past radiation treatment to your head, neck, and chest increases your risk for thyroid nodules.
  • You do not get enough iodine.
  • Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States, but it is common in areas where iodine is not added to salt, food, and water. An iodine deficiency may result in an enlarged thyroid gland ( goiter
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can cause an underactive thyroid gland .
  • One or both of your parents have had thyroid nodules.
  • Overgrowth Of Normal Thyroid Tissue


    An overgrowth of normal tissue, also called thyroid adenoma, are non-cancerous growths within your thyroid that cause nodules. Its not clear why they happen, but they are generally harmless unless they begin causing symptoms.

    As benign thyroid nodules grow over time, they may compress other areas of your neck, leading to trouble swallowing, breathing, or a hoarse voice. Symptomatic nodules that result from an overgrowth of tissue need treatment.

    Treatment may involve surgically removing the nodule or a less invasive procedure called radiofrequency ablation. Your treatment depends on the location and size of your thyroid nodule and must take your medical history into account.

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    When Should I Worry About Thyroid Nodules

    In most cases, thyroid nodules arent a cause for concern. But even though the vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign, some thyroid nodules do contain thyroid cancer.

    For this reason, you should see your healthcare provider so they can evaluate the nodule to be sure its benign. As with all cases of cancer, the earlier it can be diagnosed and treated, the better.

    Chronic Inflammation Of The Thyroid

    Chronic inflammation of the thyroid, also , can cause nodules to develop. Types of thyroiditis include postpartum thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, and Hashimotos thyroiditis. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs after giving birth and involves the body producing too much thyroid hormone, followed by a severe drop in hormone production.

    Subacute thyroiditis is an immune reaction in the thyroid that develops from a viral infection. Having an upper respiratory infection puts you at risk of developing subacute thyroiditis. It can cause tenderness and pain in and around the thyroid gland and neck. Once your immune system clears the infection, thyroiditis dissipates.

    Hashimotos thyroiditis is the most common form of thyroiditis. It is an inflammatory-based disease of the thyroid that causes hypothyroidism, thyroid inflammation, and enlarged thyroid nodules.

    Patients who suffer from Hashimotos need to have their thyroid hormones checked regularly to maintain their health. They may also benefit from regular thyroid nodule ultrasounds, which detect smaller nodules not felt on physical exams.

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    Treating Nodules In Your Thyroid

    Treatment for your thyroid nodule will depend partly on whether or not you have symptoms as well as if its cancerous or not.

    Possible treatments for thyroid nodules include:

    • Watchful waiting This is what typically happens if your thyroid nodule isnt causing you symptoms or doesnt bother you cosmetically. Your doctor will simply make note of it, its growth and whether it changes over time.
    • Surgery If the thyroid nodule is so large that its causing problems with swallowing or breathing, surgery to remove it might be recommended. This is also a standard course of treatment for nodules that are suspected or known to be cancer.
    • Medications If your thyroid isnt functioning properly or producing the right amount of hormone, you may be prescribed thyroid medications to either increase the amount of thyroid hormone or medications to decrease thyroid hormone .
    • Thyroid radiofrequency ablation A new, minimally invasive procedure, this allows us to shrink or eradicate nodules by using a needle that heats and destroys the thyroid nodule tissue.
    • Ethanol ablation If a nodule is filled with fluid , we can do this procedure, which involves removing the fluid and then injecting ethanol into the cyst to ensure it shrinks.

    What Are The Symptoms

    Thyroid Nodules: FAQs – Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatments

    Most thyroid nodules do not cause symptoms and are so small that you cannot feel them. If your thyroid nodule is large, your neck may be swollen or you may be able to feel the nodule. In rare cases, you may also:

    • Feel pain in your throat or feel like your throat is full.
    • Have a hard time swallowing.
    • Have a hard time breathing.
    • Feel nervous, have a fast heartbeat, sweat a lot, lose weight, or have other symptoms of hyperthyroidism .
    • Feel tired or depressed, have memory problems, be constipated, have dry skin, feel cold, or have other symptoms of hypothyroidism .

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    A Bit Of Statistics About Thyroid Nodules

    Do you know that 10% of the world have different focal thyroid formation?

    The nodules are the most common disorders of the thyroid gland. And it is 4-8 times more common in women. The frequency and amount produced in the thyroid gland of nodes increases with age. The reasons for the formation of the nodules occurring in the thyroid gland are the genetic predisposition to their development, iodine deficiency in food and water, the toxic effects of iron on varnishes and paints, solvents, gasoline, phenols, lead, radiation emission and radiation therapy.

    Nodes in the thyroid gland can be single and multiple autonomous toxic or calm, non-toxic.

    The thyroid gland may develop in a variety of morphological forms nodules, with most of them is benign .There are both benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    Hot Vs Cold Thyroid Nodules

    Thyroid nodules are classified as either cold or hot nodules. A hot thyroid nodule produces thyroid hormones that can cause hyperthyroidism. Hot nodules are also referred to as toxic nodules. When your nodule produces excess thyroid hormones, you may experience symptoms such as:

    • An irregular or rapid heart rate

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    How Are Thyroid Nodules Diagnosed

    Sometimes you can feel or see a thyroid nodule yourself, or your healthcare provider may discover it during a physical exam. Your provider may also discover a nodule with an imaging test done for another reason.

    Even though thyroid nodules are almost always noncancerous , the small chance that it could be cancer means that most thyroid nodules need some type of evaluation.

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    Thyroid nodules are masses or cysts located within the thyroid gland. They are very common, and about 1 person in 20 will have a palpable mass in the thyroid. Nonpalpable thyroid nodules are more common, and on average 1 in 5 or 20% of the population will have a thyroid nodule or nodules visible on ultrasound examination. As we age, the incidence increases, and roughly half of persons over 60 years of age have one or more thyroid nodules. Over the last 20 years there has been a significant increase in the number of patients having imaging of the neck. Carotid ultrasound, neck CT, MRI, and PET scans can all detect nodules in the thyroid that are nonpalpable and completely asymptomatic. This creates a lot of anxiety among patients, and need to evaluate the nodules to exclude the possibility of thyroid cancer.

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