Types Of Thyroid Cancers
There are 3 main types of Thyroid Cancer.
This cancer consists of three types:
- Papillary Cancer
- Follicular Cancer
Papillary Cancer is the primary thyroid cancer. 8 of 10 thyroid cancers are papillary cancers. This cancer develops slowly and mostly spreads to lymph nodes in the neck. Though this is the most recurring cancer it can be treated successfully. There is low risk in this type of cancer and chances of death are seen rarely.
Follicular Cancer is the following, next to papillary cancer. And 1 of 10 is follicular thyroid cancers. It is a common type of cancer where iodine levels in that country are very less. This cancer does not spread out to lymph but this spreads other parts of the body. This cancer is a bit dreadful compared to papillary cancer. But can be treatable good in most of the cases.
Hurthle Cell Cancer is a rare one and only accounts for 3% of thyroid cancers. It is harder to sort out this type and even more difficult to treat.
2. Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Medullary Thyroid Cancer is developed from the C cells in the Thyroid gland. This type of cancers accounts for 4% of Thyroid Cancers. This cancer has a chance to spread to lymph nodes, liver or lungs.
Medullary Thyroid Cancer consists of 2 types
Sporadic MTC mostly develops in adults and mostly affects only one thyroid lobe. This is not an inherited cancer. Sporadic MTC accounts 8 of 10 MTC.
3 Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
How Do I Choose A Thyroid Surgeon
A high-volume surgeon is best. Whether you opt for a general, endocrine, or head and neck surgeon, you want to choose a provider who does a lot of these surgeries every year, says Dr. Lieb. Dr. Chen says a good volume to shoot for is 100 per year or more.
You can find directories of qualified surgeons at the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons or the American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.
Papillary Thyroid Cancer Survival Rate
Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid cancer prognosis is often better than for other types of thyroid cancer. This is especially true for people younger than 55. People in this age group with papillary thyroid cancer are less likely to die than older people with papillary thyroid cancer.
The 5-year survival rates for papillary thyroid cancer are as follows:
- Localized: nearly 100%
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Will I Be Cared For Mainly By One Provider Or Will There Be Multiple Ones
Thyroid cancer care is a team sport. Dr. Lieb says you can expect to be cared for by many people during your cancer treatment, including your primary care physician, your endocrinologist, and your surgeon. There will also be pathologists and social workers. Depending on the type of thyroid cancer, you may also see a nuclear medicine team, vascular surgeon, voice specialist, and imaging professionals.
What Affects Your Prognosis
Stage IV thyroid cancer is cancer that has spread from your thyroid gland to other parts of your neck, lymph nodes, or distant areas of your body like your lungs or bones. Several things have an impact on your prognosis, including:
Your type of thyroid cancer. There are four main kinds:
Each type acts differently. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common kind. It has the best outlook because it grows slowly. Even when this cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, it responds well to treatment.
Follicular and medullary thyroid cancers are less common than papillary cancer, but their prognosis is good overall. Anaplastic is the fastest-growing type of thyroid cancer, and it doesn’t respond well to treatment.
Your age. People with papillary or follicular cancers who are younger than 40 may have a better outlook than those who are older.
Your health. When you start out in good health, you usually can handle treatment and its side effects better.
How far the cancer has spread. Cancers that have spread just outside the thyroid gland have a better prognosis than those that have spread to distant parts of the body.
Whether you have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B . People who have this inherited disease have greater odds of getting medullary thyroid cancer. They are also often diagnosed at a late stage, when the cancer is harder to treat.
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Thyroid Cancer Survival Rates By Type And Stage
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They can’t tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Your doctor is familiar with yoursituation ask how these numbers may apply to you.
How Age Affects The Risk Of Thyroid Cancer Recurrence
Several factors determine if your thyroid cancer may return or relapse after treatment, with age being an independent risk factor. Typically, the older population is at a greater risk of experiencing a reoccurrence of thyroid cancer after an initial diagnosis. However, it is not a must that thyroid cancer will return. Other factors that increase the chances of thyroid cancer reoccurrence after diagnosis and treatment include stage, obesity, and genetics.
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Are There Complementary Therapies I Can Try
While there are no great studies showing that complementary and alternative medicine can cure or treat thyroid cancer, you might find some of them helpful for relieving stress, such as aromatherapy or massage therapy.
Ask your doctor before taking any herbal supplements, and if you are already taking some, be sure to let your provider know what and how much, as some herbs can impact thyroid function or interfere with medications.
What Causes Thyroid Cancer
The exact cause of thyroid cancer is not known, though there are factors that may be associated with an increased risk of developing the cancer. Even if the risk factors are present, there is not a way of knowing whether cancer might develop patients without risk factors still may develop thyroid cancer.
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Three Types Of Thyroid Cancer
While there are some childhood-specific variations of this cancer, most adults with the disease will develop one of three types.
Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Also known as papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer, this type of cancer is considered the most treatable form of the disease and can be cured in most cases.
Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Also known as anaplastic thyroid cancer, this variation is much less common. In most cases, tumors grow quickly and spread faster which results in a lower rate of survival.
Medullary Thyroid Cancer This variation of thyroid cancer impact the C-cells of the thyroid, which are primarily responsible for creating a hormone that regulates calcium levels in the bloodstream.
Where Can I Find Thyroid Cancer Support
Your biggest sources of support can be your friends and family. Consider taking a trusted friend or relative to your appointments to take notes and ask questions you might not think of right away.
Additionally, hospitals will often have information on support groups in your area both virtual and IRL . The doctor treating your cancer may also be able to suggest some of these.
The Thyroid Cancer Survivors Association has information and support for both newly diagnosed people and those who have been on their cancer journey for longer.
You can also visit and join the American Cancer Societys Cancer Survivors Network.
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Death From Other Causes
Thirty-eight patients died from causes other than thyroid cancer. Two died from another pre-existing primary tumour and nine from a cardiac cause. The two patients who died from another pre-existing primary tumour suffered from chronic lymphatic leukaemia and acromegaly respectively and belonged to a group of 26 patients with a history of a primary tumour diagnosed before thyroid carcinoma. Ten of these 38 patients had evidence of persistent thyroid cancer at their latest visit.
Thyroid Cancer Survival Rate By Age
Medically Reviewed by: Dr. BautistaUpdated on: May 10, 2022
Thyroid cancer is a rare form of cancer that affects the thyroid gland, a gland located at the base of the neck, producing hormones. The condition is common in people in their 30s and over 60 years and is nearly 2-3 times more predominant in women than in men. Like most types of cancer, thyroid cancer is treatable, although it may come back after treatment.
Typically, thyroid cancer is the most common form of rare endocrine tumor diagnosed at a younger age, making it the most increasing type of cancer in the United States due to increased detection. Understanding the survival rate provides insights into the percentage of people living with thyroid cancer, focusing on the type and stage of thyroid cancer.
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Which Life Insurance Policy Type Is Best For Cancer Survivors
Most often, term life insurance for cancer survivors is the best option. It is the most affordable and provides coverage for a set number of years. However, depending on your needs, permanent life insurance, like whole life or universal life, may be the better choice. If you cant qualify, guaranteed acceptance life insurance, while more expensive, may be the only option available. Consider these policy types when choosing which is best for your situation.
A critical illness that requires immediate medical attention, such as a heart attack, stroke or cancer, can result in high medical bills. Critical illness coverage can provide a lump sum benefit to offset the medical costs associated with the diagnosis. It can also offer a death benefit to your chosen beneficiary if you pass away due to a critical illness. It can be combined with life insurance or purchased alone, though most carriers only offer it as an employee benefit, not a standalone policy.
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Whats The Thyroid Cancer Survival Rate
Eight out of 10 people who have thyroid cancer develop the papillary type. Papillary thyroid cancer has a five-year survival rate of almost 100% when the cancer is in their gland . Even when the cancer spreads , the survival rate is close to 80%. This rate means that, on average, youâre about 80% as likely to live for at least five years after diagnosis as someone who doesnât have metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
Five-year survival rates for other thyroid cancer types include:
- Follicular: Close to 100% for localized around 63% for metastasized.
- Medullary: Close to 100% for localized around 40% for metastasized.
- Anaplastic: Close to 31% for localized 4% for metastasized.
Is thyroid cancer curable?
Yes, most thyroid cancers are curable with treatment, especially if the cancer cells havenât spread to distant parts of your body. If treatment doesnât fully cure thyroid cancer, your healthcare provider can design a treatment plan to destroy as much of the tumor as possible and prevent it from growing back or spreading.
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What’s The Prognosis For Stage Iv Thyroid Cancer
If you have stage IV thyroid cancer, you may want to know about your prognosis — an estimate of how serious the disease is and how it will affect you in the future. Your outlook depends on a lot of things, including the type of thyroid cancer you have, your age, and your overall health.
Some people prefer not to learn their prognosis, and that’s OK. But if you do want the information, the best person to ask is your doctor. They know best about your specific health situation and can answer any questions you have.
Some Limitations Warrant Cautious Interpretation
In their editorial, Mulder and Duh note that while some previous studies have shown similar outcomes relating to tumor size, thyroid hormone suppression therapy, and multifocality, “few have addressed lateral neck involvement.”
They suggest cautious interpretation, however, due to limitations, acknowledged by the authors, including the single-center nature of the study.
“Appropriate propensity matching may mitigate selection bias but cannot eliminate it entirely and their findings may not be replicated in other institutions by other surgeons,” they note.
Other limitations include that changes in clinical practice and patient selection were likely over the course of the study due to significant changes in American Thyroid Association guidelines between 2009 and 2017, and characteristics including molecular genetic testing, which could have influenced final results, were not taken into consideration.
Furthermore, for patients with intermediate-risk cancer, modifications in post-operative follow-up are necessary following lobectomy versus total thyroidectomy “the role of radioiodine is limited and the levels of thyroglobulin more complicated to interpret,” they note.
The study and editorial authors had no disclosures to report.
JAMA Surg. Published December 1, 2022. Study,Editorial
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When To Get Medical Advice
See a GP if you have symptoms of thyroid cancer. The symptoms may be caused by less serious conditions, such as an enlarged thyroid , so its important to get them checked.
A GP will examine your neck and can organise a blood test to check how well your thyroid is working.
If they think you could have cancer or theyre not sure whats causing your symptoms, youll be referred to a hospital specialist for more tests.
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Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is often prescribed after thyroid surgery to replace the hormones that are no longer being produced by your thyroid tissue. Depending on how much of your thyroid was taken out, you may have to take the medication most commonly levothyroxine for the rest of your life.
Thyroid hormone replacement can also help prevent the growth or recurrence of thyroid cancer. It does this by lowering your circulating level of the hormone TSH, which is secreted by your brains pituitary gland and tells your thyroid to make more thyroid hormone. High TSH levels can stimulate the growth of thyroid cancer cells. Higher doses of replacement thyroid hormone tell your body to make less TSH, slowing the growth of any thyroid cancer cells and lowering the odds of your cancer coming back.
It can take a few adjustments to find the correct dosage of thyroid hormone replacement. During this time, you may need to see the doctor every 6 to 8 weeks for a blood draw to determine if your levels are optimal.
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Demographic Characteristics Of The Study Population With Different Cancers
The study population from the SEER program between 2010 and 2015 consisted of 241,661 female patients with early-stage cancers, including 12,617 cases of NCSLC , 166,051 cases of infiltrating breast cancer , 31,096 cases of DTC , 23,550 cases of colorectal cancer , and 8347 cases of cervical cancer . The mean ages of the study populations of five cancer cohorts were 68.11 years for the patients with NSCLC, 59.03 years for the patients with breast cancer, 45.3 years for the patients with DTC, 64.88 years for the patients with colorectal cancer, and 46.45 years for the patients with cervical cancer. The patients who identified their race as white accounted for a predominant proportion of the patients in the five cancer groups . A longer median follow-up was observed among patients with DTC , whereas the shortest median follow-up time was observed in patients with NSCLC . Most of the patients received surgical treatment, and less than half of them elected chemotherapy. A majority of patients started treatment within 1 month of their diagnosis for colorectal and DTC, but not for NSCLC, breast cancer, or cervical cancer. A detailed report of the clinical characteristics of patients across cancers is summarized in Table , and their cancer-specific characteristics are summarized in Additional file : Table S2.
Table 1 The demographic characteristics of early-stage female cancer patients with different time delay intervals
How Common Is Thyroid Cancer
The American Cancer Societys most recent estimates for thyroid cancer in the United States for 2022 are:
- About 43,800 new cases of thyroid cancer
- About 2,230 deaths from thyroid cancer
The death rate for thyroid cancer increased slightly from 2009 to 2018 but appears to have stabilized in recent years. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed in Survival Rates for Thyroid Cancer.
Thyroid cancer is commonly diagnosed at a younger age than most other adult cancers. And women are 3 times more likely to develop thyroid cancer than men.
Until recently, thyroid cancer was the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US, largely due to increased detection. Much of this rise appears to be the result of the use of more sensitive diagnostic procedures, such as CT or MRI scans , which can detect incidental small thyroid nodules that might not otherwise have been found in the past.
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Causes And Risk Factors
Cancer is often the result of gene mutations that cause uncontrolled cell growth and prevent healing. Unchecked cell growth then often leads to tumor development.
Some gene mutations are inherited. Common gene mutations linked to ovarian cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. According to the CDC, 10 percent of ovarian cancers result from inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. Additional gene mutations are linked to ovarian cancer, but those are rarer.
Having BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations may also increase the risk of breast cancer. Women with a personal history of breast cancer or a family history of breast cancer may have an increased risk for ovarian cancer.
Different environmental and lifestyle factors linked to gene mutations might also increase the risk for epithelial ovarian cancer.
Risk factors for ovarian cancer include:
Age: Ovarian cancer in people younger than 40 is rare, and at least half of ovarian cancers occur after age 63, according to the ACS.
Weight: A body mass index of 30 or higher may increase the risk for ovarian cancer. Obesity may also affect overall survival from ovarian cancer.
Family history: People with a family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer or colorectal cancer may have a higher risk. The risk may be even higher for people with a first-degree relative with ovarian cancer.
Smoking:Smoking might not be linked explicitly to ovarian cancer, but it does increase the risk for mucinous-type epithelial ovarian cancer and affects overall health.